Elizabethan government


Bacon's Essays: Of Dispatch

Dispatch is one of those delightful words whose meanings have clung close to their origin, in both theirpony-express nominal and verbal forms. It’s about sending things quickly, so we can dispatch a dispatch with dispatch. Bacon is talking about business: getting things done.

Be thou not hasty!

“Affected dispatch is one of the most dangerous things to business that can be.” He means that pretending to get things done quickly, merely for the sake of appearances, is a terrible idea. This must have happened a lot in Bacon’s day, because he spends a whole paragraph arguing against it.

“Therefore measure not dispatch, by the times of sitting, but by the advancement of the business.” This is the quote used in the OED definition of one of dispatch’s sub-meanings, “Prompt settlement or speedy accomplishment of an affair.” Prompt; not hasty.

cecil-court-of-wardsBacon served in Parliament most of the years of his life (from 1885 – 1607.) He must have served on a lot of committees with a lot of men whose efforts were aimed at something other than the task at hand. (Self-aggrandizement, pushing Puritan ideology, etc.) Many men must also have simply gotten bored with the increasing focus on detail resulting from a century of Tudor monarchs and their university-bred ministers.

But haste makes waste, of everyone’s time and effort. “And business so handled, at several sittings or meetings, goeth commonly backward and forward in an unsteady manner. I knew a wise man that had it for a byword, when he saw men hasten to a conclusion, Stay a little, that we may make an end the sooner.”

Those rooms are chilly, clammy, and stuffy, in my observation as a tourist, although ruffs are more comfortable than you might think.


Neither shalt thou dally

“On the other side, true dispatch is a rich thing. For time is the measure of business, as money is of wares…” An important thing to remember.

Philip II, by Titian

Here’s an example of the hazards of sluggishness: “The Spartans and Spaniards have been noted to be of small dispatch; Mi venga la muerte de Spagna; Let my death come from Spain; for then it will be sure to be long in coming.”

Spain had created a global empire in the sixteenth century. It took several months for a ship to travel to the Americas and back; nevertheless, all major decisions had to be made by King Philip personally. You can imagine what his to-do looked like! Decisions took forever.

This next whole paragraph is useful. “Give good hearing to those, that give the first information in business; and rather direct them in the beginning, than interrupt them in the continuance of their speeches; for he that is put out of his own order, will go forward and backward, and be more tedious, while he waits upon his memory, than he could have been, if he had gone on in his own course. But sometimes it is seen, that the moderator is more troublesome, than the actor.”

Anyone who has ever been in a meeting has seen this. The moderator (or bad teacher) keeps interrupting the poor speaker to hurry them along, succeeding only in getting them more muddled. I can feel a parody of this tickling at my memory, from some movie, a 40’s movie maybe…. Jimmy Stewart? Or one of those great character actors? Dick Van Dyke?

Avoid those long and curious speeches

running-ina-dress“Long and curious speeches, are as fit for dispatch, as a robe or mantle, with a long train, is for race.” Maybe a man couldn’t do it, but women could hike up their skirts and run with the best of them.

Bacon was also well-acquainted with the type we call the Gasbag. The Elizabethan word for self-display was ‘bravery.’ “Prefaces and passages, and excusations, and other speeches of reference to the person, are great wastes of time; and though they seem to proceed of modesty, they are bravery.”

This next analogy needs explanation; at least, I had to look up a word. “Yet beware of being too material, when there is any impediment or obstruction in men’s wills; for pre-occupation of mind ever requireth preface of speech; like a fomentation to make the unguent enter.”

You have to allow some amount of digression, especially to help set up the context. A fomentation is something warm, like a pad of flannel soaked in hot water, that helps the unguent be absorbed by the skin. Now that I understand it, I find the analogy a little creepy.

Make that list

Efficient time managers — people who get things done — make lists. Sorry, non-list-makers; it’s a fact of life. Bacon knew it. He probably made a list every morning, augmenting the weekly list he’d made on Monday morning. Did he check things off or strike them through? History doesn’t tell us, of that I am certain. History rarely tells us this sort of thing, so I am free to make it up in my stories.

“Above all things, order, and distribution, and singling out of parts, is the life of dispatch.”

On the other hand, “he that doth not divide, will never enter well into business; and he that divideth too much, will never come out of it clearly.” Be complete, but don’t split hairs!

“There be three parts of business; the preparation, the debate or examination, and the perfection.” The perfection means the conclusion. 

“Whereof, if you look for dispatch, let the middle only be the work of many, and the first and last thePhoenix_rising_from_its_ashes work of few.” I’ve read this notion somewhere else in his writings. Bacon strongly believed that important matters should be thoroughly discussed by everyone in such a way that everyone knows that everyone knows what everyone knows.

I agree. This is the part that many managers (dictators) want to rush through, impatient to get to the perfection. But consensus, at least of understanding, is important. And it’s crucially important to the ultimate success of the enterprise for everyone to know that they have been heard. Otherwise, they’re more likely to thwart progress than assist it.

He ends this essay atypically with a knotted construction, not the least bit quotable. “The proceeding upon somewhat [something] conceived in writing, doth for the most part facilitate dispatch: for though it should be wholly rejected, yet that negative is more pregnant of direction, than an indefinite; as ashes are more generative than dust.”

It’s a good idea to base your meeting on a written proposal. That will speed things up, because even though the proposal may be rejected, you’ll at least know exactly what it was. You’ll at least get a clear sense of what is not wanted.

I got nothing about ashes being more generative than dust, except that the phoenix arises from its own ashes. Bacon might have been thinking about this. His mind tended to leap first to the classical for analogies, like most well-educated Elizabethans.


Bacon's essays: Of seditions and troubles

A storm at sea. Ludolf Bakhuizen. 1702.

Seditions and troubles and libels, oh, my! I think Bacon may be writing about the 2016 US presidential campaigns here. “Libels and licentious discourses against the state, when they are frequent and open; and in like sort, false news often running up and down, to the disadvantage of the state, and hastily embraced; are amongst the signs of troubles.” Especially that “false news running up and down” part.

Bacon compares troubles of the state to tropical storms, curiously noting that they “are commonly greatest, when things grow to equality; as natural tempests are greatest about the Equinoctia.” More troubles in democracies? That’s the opposite of what he said in the last essay.

He loves the image so much, he gives it to us in Latin: “Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus
Saepe monet, fraudesque et operta tunescere bella.” [He oftens warns of fast-coming tumults, hidden fraud, and open warfare, swelling proud. Virgil, Georg. i, 465. Thank you, Robert Whateley!]

How much news would an Agnew choose?

(… if an Agnew could choose news. Laugh In, March 2, 1970.)

Francis Bacon well understood the problems of rumors and spread of ‘fames,’ by which he means ‘reputations’ or ‘scandals.’ “Tacitus saith; conflata magna invidia, seu bene seu male gesta premunt.” [Great envy being excited, they condemn acts, whether good or bad. Tacitus, Hist., i, 7.]

I think Bacon means that once you rise to a place where everything you do is remarked upon, you inspire envy, and then whatever you do will be despised. Although I’m not sure that fits the general theme, which has to do with seditious fames being both a cause and an effect of seditious tumults.

“Neither doth it follow, that because these fames are a sign of troubles, that the suppressing of them with too much severity, should be a remedy of troubles. For the despising of them, many times checks them best; and the going about to stop them, doth but make a wonder long-lived.”

He is so right! How many modern personages have risen to great fame by doing and saying outrageous things? If it were possible to ignore them, the way you ignore a yapping dog, they would eventually shut up and slink away. Given our culture of instant media circulation, that’s not possible. Now, moronic businessmen who make ugly, off-the-cuff, racist remarks, can actually rise on the tumult that whips up to the top of their political party.

Francis Bacon would not be at all surprised by the rise of Donald Trump. He would say, “Didn’t you read my essay?”

Too much Latin, Francis!

This is why we can’t learn from his excellent observations: we stopped basing our educations on Latin rhetoric more than a century ago. It’s a dead language, for pity’s sake!

I started making a list of the quotes from Tacitus and others, adding the translations, but they don’t make sense out of context and I’m not finding them that illuminating even in context. Heck with it. If you really want to slog through the many Latin quotations, read the essay in Whateley’s edition. He provides translations in the footnotes.

Shaking the pillars

“[W]hen discords, and quarrels, and factions are carried openly and audaciously, it is a sign thesamson reverence of government is lost.” True, and in my personal opinion, ultimately the biggest problem in raising buffoons to the highest level of political discourse. People lose faith in government. And when they see buffoonery attract thousands of followers, they lose faith in the fundamental processes of democracy.

“[W]hen any of the four pillars of government, are mainly shaken, or weakened (which are religion, justice, counsel, and treasure), men had need to pray for fair weather.”

Now we move on to the practical matters.”The surest way to prevent seditions (if the times do bear it) is to take away the matter of them… The matter of seditions is of two kinds: much poverty, and much discontentment.” 


“As for discontentments … let no prince measure the danger of them by this, whether they be just or unjust: for that were to imagine people, to be too reasonable; who do often spurn at their own good”

Oh, Francis! You are too wise!

“The causes and motives of seditions are, innovation in religion; taxes; alteration of laws and customs; breaking of privileges; general oppression; advancement of unworthy persons; strangers; dearths; disbanded soldiers; factions grown desperate; and what soever, in offending people, joineth and knitteth them in a common cause.”

That pretty much sums it up.

General preservatives

Bacon has a lot of advice about preventing sedition. He did live through troublous times, although they got troublous-er in the generation after his death. But he is spot on here: “The first remedy or prevention is to remove, by all means possible, that material cause of sedition whereof we spake; which is, want and poverty in the estate.”

He’s not really talking about income inequality per se, but he always pointed out to anyone who would listen that the first, best, foundation of a safe and stable society was that everyone in it have sufficient means to live comfortably and securely.

How do we achieve this laudable goal? “To which purpose serveth the opening, and well-balancing of trade; the cherishing of manufactures; the banishing of idleness; the repressing of waste, and excess, by sumptuary laws; the improvement and husbanding of the soil; the regulating of prices of things vendible; the moderating of taxes and tributes; and the like.”

OK, easier said than done. These are the issues our candidates debate, when they’re not just ranting. How to cherish manufacture? (Domestic, not outsourced.) How to repress waste, which in our century is actually crushing the life out of our planet?

(I realize this post is more political than my usual output. This essay is ringing bells for me this year!)

spreading-manureBacon warns about having in imbalanced population. You don’t want too many people and you especially don’t want too many people of great estate as compared to ordinary people. “Therefore the multiplying of nobility, and other degrees of quality, in an over proportion to the common people, doth speedily bring a state to necessity; and so doth likewise an overgrown clergy; for they bring nothing to the stock.”


Spread the wealth! Now he’s sounding like Bernie Sanders, which is just so improbable. But read this: “Above all things, good policy is to be used, that the treasure and moneys, in a state, be not gathered into few hands.”

And here’s the take-home quote: “Money is like muck, not good except it be spread.”

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